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Full text of "Ten years in Manchuria : a story of medical mission work in Moukden, 1883-1893"

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D. CHRISTIE, L.R.C.P. &S. Ed. 






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CHARLES WILLIAM WASON 

COLLECTION 

CHINA AND THE CHINESE 



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CHARLES WILLIAM WASON 

CLASS OF 1B76 

1918 



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Cornell University Library 
BV 3420.M2C55 



Ten years in Manchuria :a story of medic 




3 1924 023 068 772 




Cornell University 
Library 



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tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
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TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA 



H Storg 

OP 

/iDebical /iDission morft in /iDouft&en. 

1883— 1893. 



BY 

DUGALD CHRISTIE, L.KC.P., L.R.C.S.Ed., 

MEDICAL MISSIONAET, 
CHITED PRESBYTERIAN OHUKOH OP SCOTLAND. 



J. AND R. PARLANE, PAISLEY. 

THE RELIGIOUS TRACT AND BOOK SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND, EDINBURGH. 
HODLSTON AND SONS, LONDON. 



V\XtSS' 






Ki.no^^ 



PREFACE. 



The only Protestant missionaries in Manchuria are those 
of the Scotch United Presbyterians and the Irish Presby- 
terians. These are now united, and with the native elders 
and members form the Church of Manchuria. 

The following narrative only tells the story of Dr. 
Christie's Medical and Evangelistic work in Moukden. If 
the whole history of the Manchurian Mission were to be 
written in full detail, it would fill every Christian heart 
with wonder and thankfulness. 

The most striking feature of that Mission is the manner 
in which the Gospel has been propagated by the Chinese 
converts themselves. Not only have such remarkable 
evangelists arisen as Old Wang, the first man baptized by 
Dr. Ross ; and Blind C/mng who has carried the Gospel to 
countless multitudes ; but even to the ordinary converts 
may the language of St. Paul be applied — "From you 
sounded out the word of the Lord ... so that we need 
not to speak any thing." 

As the result of their zeal, the Gospel has penetrated far 
into the interior. Messages often come to the missionaries 
from towns and villages unknown to them requesting a 
visit from them, and telling of numbers of professed 



6 PREFACE. 

believers. Some one had brought them the good news, 
they had received the Word gladly, and desired further 
instruction in the way of Life. After journeying for some 
weeks, passing from village to village, a young missionary 
wrote thus — "I went in hope and returned without 
disappointment. There is a magnificent work going on 
here. The spiritual tide is entering from the great sea 
and stealing in to these inland valleys. To oneself it is a 
solemn thing to be a witness of its rise, still more to be 
called to open a way for its progress." 

F. W. I. 



All profits from this book will he decoted to the MouMen 
Hospital. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 

I. The Beginning of Medical Work 

II. Encouragements 

in. The New Hospital 

IV. Evangelistic Work 

V. Women's Work 

VI. Some Conditions Which Influenob Disease 

Appendix 





PAGE 




9 




19 




37 




53 




63 


rSBASE 


69 




89 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS, 



Hospital Assistant, Evangelist, 
Portrait of General Tso 
The New Hospital 

Dispensary 

Plan of Hospital 



AND Students Frontiajmce. 
27 
38 
44 
46 



TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 



Chapter I. 
THE BEGINNING OF MEDICAL WORK. 

"V/TANCHURIA occupies the north-east corner of 
the Chinese empire. It covers an area of 
about 300,000 square miles, and its population is said 
to be 20,000,000. Of these, probably, only one in 
twenty is of Manchu descent ; and even these have 
adopted the Chinese language and habits. The bulk 
of the people are Chinese, so that there is practically 
little difference between Manchuria and other provinces 
of Northern China. Being, however, the early home of 
the present dynasty, its capital, Moukden, is considered 
officially the second city of the empire. It has a 
population of about 250,000, and is the literary and 
commercial centre of the province. The city is sur- 
rounded by a massive wall with eight imposing gate- 
ways. The streets are much wider than in southern 
2 



10 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. , 

China, but not any cleaner. The houses are all of one 
storey, the people having a strong superstitious prejudice 
against anything higher, except for temples. " Spirits 
may dwell in towers but not human beings." 

The Moukden Medical Mission having now completed 
its first decade, it may be of some interest to review 
the progress which has been made. 

On my arrival in Manchuria in the autumn of 1882, 
I visited Moukden with Rev. Mr Ross, who had already 
seen good fruit of his labours there, the first convert 
having been baptized in 1876. Our object was to 
secure premises in which to live and carry on work. 
One compound had been bought, but the feeling against 
the foreigners made it difiicult to get a second. We 
spent the winter in the port of Newchwang, where 
several hundred patients were seen, the first being 
Wang, the faithful attendant of Rev. W. C. Burns during 
his last illness. 

Removal to Moukden, 1883. 
In May, 1883, we removed to Moukden, and property 
was acquired for a Medical Mission house in the east 
suburb of the city. During the months while it was 
building both families had to be crowded into one small 
house. The contrast now is very marked; our little 
terrace containing four comfortable dwelling-houses. 



THE BEGINNING OP MEDICAL WORK. 11 

The congregation, the first time I saw it, was but small, 
and met in a humble low-roofed house. Now from two 
to three hundred worship every Sunday in a large 
imposing church. 

The arrival of a foreign doctor in Moukden, even one 
who as yet knew but little of the language, caused some 
stir ; and as soon as I was able to see patients, people 
came in crowds. Not much actual work was done, I 
fear ; for the object of many was merely to see the 
foreigner. It was often difficult to know whether the 
disease was real or feigned ; and it is questionable how 
much of the medicine was ever used. After a time the 
excitement died down, and the numbers diminished 
rapidly. A small room in Mr Ross's compound was 
kindly placed at my disposal, and fitted up as a 
dispensary ; it was opened for regular work in 
June, about thirty patients coming each dispensing 
day. In three months the numbers increased to 
sixty or eighty ; but it was slow work. The 
patients were as much taken up with the strange 
foreigner as with their own symptoms; and their 
language was still a hindrance. There was no 
trained assistant, so that I had to make up my own 
prescriptions. Consulting-room and dispensary were in 
one ; and the waiting-room was so small that preaching 
was sometimes, during the hot weather, carried on in 



12 TEN YEARS IX MANCHURIA. 

the open air. Such ^yere the humble beginnings of 
our work. 

U2Jidemic. 
During the months of August and September, a 
terrible epidemic of cholera visited the country. Native 
treatment, which seemed to consist largely in piercing 
with needles, was worse than useless, and the mortality 
in Moukden city was very great. Yet this calamity 
turned out for the good of our work ; for great numbers 
came for medicine, and thus much prejudice was 
broken down. 

Susjncion. 
There was still, however, a great deal of suspicion of 
the foreigner and his drugs. Some said that the 
missionaries were but the vanguard of an English host 
who were coming to invade China. Others were con- 
vinced that our medicine could change the hearts of 
those who used it, and compel them to follow the 
foreigner and believe his doctrine. A Mandarin came 
one day to have a painful tooth extracted, and so afraid 
was he of our drugs that he could not be persuaded 
even to wash out his mouth -with the water provided. 
The old story was soon set afloat, that children's hearts 
and eyes were taken out and used for concocting drugs, 
or for photographic purposes. One day during the 
summer of 1884, a French Catholic priest called on us, 



THE BEGINNING OF MEDICAL WORK. 13 

clad in the usual long black robe. He came in a cart, 
stayed some time in our house, and then returned home. 
The dispensary was at the time full of patients, so that 
many knew of his visit. A day or two afterwards 
crowds gathered outside our gate, and there was con- 
siderable excitement. The story believed by all was as 
follows : — The Catholics and we were very anxious to 
obtain children's eyes and hearts, and were willing to 
give large sums of money for them. When the priest 
called, he brought under his robe a little child. We 
retired into a dark room, weighed it, removed the eyes 
and heart, and agreed upon the price. This trade in 
children had .been carried on for some time, and the 
next day three carts left the city laden with hearts and 
eyes. Three points of the story were true. A little 
Mohammedan child was lost, the priest did call on us, 
and a foreigner, who had been in Moukden, did leave 
the city with three carts on the day after the visit. 

About the same time a mother brought her young 
daughter for treatment; and while the woman was 
detailing to me the symptoms, the girl, frightened at 
the sight of the foreigner, slipped out of the room. 
When the flow of the mother's eloquence subsided, she 
looked round, but her daughter was gone ! In great 
excitement she rushed back to the waiting-room, but 
she was not there. There was then a general search 
inside and outside the compound, but in vain. The 



14 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

mother, in the meantime, firmly convinced that we had 
stolen the girl, became violent, and loudly insisted that 
she be given up. At last someone suggested that she 
might have run off to the inn where they were staying. 
A man was sent to see, and there the little fugitive was, 
glad to have escaped safely from the awful foreigner. 
Even when this news was brought, it was with difficulty 
that we got the terrified woman to leave the compound. 
Of course this was the last we saw of our patient. 

Placards have at times been posted on our gates 
calling on the populace to drive the intruders out of 
the country, but nothing ever came of this ; and we in 
Manchuria have but little to complain of, as we have 
met with a very different reception from that given to 
missionaries in some parts of China. Those fears and 
suspicions which were at first entertained have now 
entirely died out; though now and again something 
occurs to remind us that the eye is a suspicious member. 
Only last Spring a little girl came with a very unsightly 
growth on one eye, which seriously injured her chances 
of a good marriage. Her mother, who had been in the 
hospital before, seemed to have great trust in us, and 
was much interested in Christian truth. As they were 
anxious to have the growth removed I performed the 
necessary operation, and afterwards presented the 
patient with a false eye. The mother was much pleased 
at first, as it fitted perfectly, and greatly improved the 



THE BEGINNING OF MEDICAL WORK. 15 

appearance of the girl. A day or two after leaving us, 
however, she brought the child back and asked me to 
take out the eye, making an excuse, and saying she 
would return for it. This she has never done ; and I 
have no doubt that her friends frightened her out of 
keeping a foreign eye. 

One of our great hindrances from a medical point of 
view is, that so many of our patients are treated first 
after native methods, and only come to us when their 
own doctors say there is no hope. But the proportion 
of cases brought to us in their early stages has 
increased year by year, giving conclusive proof of 
increasing confidence. A rather unwelcome proof of 
this came to my knowledge lately in the town of 
Tie-ling. We heard that foreign medicines had been 
sold on the street by a man supposed to be a church 
member ; and I was much concerned lest there had been 
dishonesty in the dispensary. On making enquiries 
through the Elder of the church there, the truth came 
out. The man was neither member nor enquirer, but 
he found he could get a readier sale for his sham drugs 
if he called them foreign, and he learned one of our 
hymns to convince the people of his connection with us. 
Each morning, after setting up his little tent on the 
street, he sang his hymn, and when the crowd gathered 
he displayed his medicines, guaranteeing them as the 
genuine foreign article. 



16 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

Progress. 

In the autumn of 1883, "we were able to enter our 
new house, and at the same time the temporary 
dispensary was removed to a building in our own 
compound. A young man named Wei was engaged as 
dispenser, another named Chang was appointed 
evangelist, and Lui Fu acted as gatekeeper. This 
man was one of the most faithful agents I ever had, 
and was valued by all who knew his worth. He died 
in 1890, when I was on furlough, and I have felt his 
loss deeply. 

One of our early patients in this compound was a 
middle-aged man, who was led by his little daughter to 
the dispensary, almost blind. At one time he had 
occupied a good position as writer in one of the 
government offices, but, through failure of his sight and 
opium smoking, had lost his situation. He sank lower 
and lower, till at this time he, his wife, and three 
children, were in a state of beggary. Under treatment, 
his eyes gradually improved ; and he always listened 
attentively to the preaching. One day I overheard 
him telling another patient, " God has had mercy on 
me, and has opened my eyes." On returning home, he 
regained his old situation, and soon his family were 
oace more in a comfortable position. But for nearly 
twenty years he had been an opium smokex-, and he 
found that this habit was undermining his health. 



THE BEGINNING OF MEDICAL WORK. 17 

After trying in vain to give it up without help, he 
came to us as an in-patient. He is one of the few 
opium smokers who have proved satisfactory. All 
along, he seemed sincere in attributing what was done 
for him to God's mercy. He has never entered the 
church — a very difficult step for a man in government 
employ — but he comes to see us when he visits 
Moukden, and is always ready to own himself a believer 
in Christ. He is a good scholar, and has read many of 
our books. In the case of other patients, the obstacles 
were fewer ; and in December of this year (1883) our 
hearts were cheered by the baptism of two men, the 
first-fruits of the Moukden Medical Mission. 

City Dispensary, 1884.. 
A year after coming to Moukden, a larger dispensary 
was opened inside the city, where patients were seen 
two days each week ; the place in our own compound 
being open daily. Another year had to pass before we 
were in a position to. take in-patients. During this 
time those on whom operations were performed had to 
stay in their own homes or in inns near us. One of 
these was an old Buddhist priest, whose eyes were 
extensively diseased. His sight improved greatly, and 
a year later he returned for further treatment. The 
words he had heard, so different from the religion he 
had followed for so many years, had made a great 



18 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

impression on his mind ; and he seemed very anxious to 
understand more fully the way of life. The double 
blessing was bestowed ; he left us seeing fairly well, and 
after a few weeks was baptized, at the age of seventy- 
three, along with two other patients. Though now 
nearly eighty-three, and feeble with advancing age, he 
may still be seen at church every Sunday. 



ENCOURAGEMENTS. 19 



Chapter II. 
ENCOURAGEMENTS. 

OjJi,cials. 
TIPROM the beginning of our work we have beea 
fortunate in having a large number of patients and 
friends among the official class. This is an important 
matter, as the common people are greatly influenced 
by the attitude which the mandarins take up regarding 
us. Within a month after arrival, our first official 
patient called. A simple operation cured him of a most 
distressing complaint ; and till his death in 1890, he 
remained our staunch friend. Although a heavy 
opium-smoker he was always ready to exercise his 
influence in favour of our work. He was followed by 
others, many of whom invited me to their homes, where 
not only the officials themselves, but their wives and 
children were treated. Since then, we can number 
among our patients many hundreds of officials, from the 
Governor of the Province downwards. Special mention 
should be made of our old friend Gao Tao-tai, one of 



20 TEN YEAES IN MANCHUKIA. 

the most intelligent Chinamen I have met with, and a 
■warm friend to all missionaries. I soon was installed as 
his family physician, and had constant intercourse with 
all his household. He not only was ready to listen to 
Christian truth when explained, but studied the Bible 
and examined the claims of Christianity for himself; 
and, although he never made public profession of his 
faith, we have every reason to believe he died a sincere 
believer in Christ. But such cases are rare, and direct 
spiritual work among these ofJficials is difficult. They 
like to know of our western inventions and science, 
but few of them care much for any religion, whether ours 
or their own. We give away books, and put in a word 
here and there, and some are interested ; but the 
barriers between Chinese official life and the Christian 
Church seem at present well-nigh insurmountable. 

Temporary Hospital. 
In the spring of 1885 a small rickety building behind 
our house was opened as a temporary hospital. Within 
two months thirty in-patients were admitted, and nine- 
teen eye-operations were performed, two of them for 
cataract. 

First In-Patients. 
On the second of May an elderly man, a farmer, 
living some miles from Moukden,came to the dispensary 



ENCOUEAGEMENTS. 21 

to have his eyes treated. The disease was of long 
standing, and he was almost blind. On his second visit, 
two days later, he stumbled and fell outside our gate. 
He was carried into the dispensary, and I found his left 
leg badly fractured. Our hospital was not yet ready for 
opening, the kang (brick stove-bed) being still damp ; 
but the poor old fellow had no friends in Moukden, so 
rather against our will we were compelled to admit our 
first in-patient. After thirty-three days he returned 
home, his leg cured, his sight partially restored, and 
with a fair knowledge of the teaching to which 
he had been listening. 

A few days before he left, we admitted our first 
cataract case. This was a merchant in the city whose 
right eye had been blind for several years. He had 
come to us eighteen months before, but, having no 
place for in-patients, we had done nothing for him. 
The sight of his left eye was now rapidly failing from 
the same cause. There was a good deal of interest 
shown in this case, as, so far as I know, it was the first 
cataract operated on in Manchuria. It was really done 
in public ; for, the little hospital being very dark, the 
operating table was drawn out to the open air, and a 
number of people gathered round. All went well ; and 
when I held up my fingers and the people heard him 
count them correctly, there was quite a sensation. 
When he left us eighteen days later, he seemed to 



22 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

be an earnest enquirer, and several in his store bought 
Christian books; but somehow he has never gone 
beyond enquiry. Two years afterwards, the left eye 
was successfully operated on, and now, with the aid of 
a pair of foreign spectacles, he sees almost as well as 
any one. On leaving, he gave a good subscription to 
the hospital. He still continues to come about us, and 
says he prays to the Heavenly Father, and believes in 
Christ ; but he shows no desire to acknowledge his 
faith openly. It is often the case that a man is much 
interested in our teaching, but cares to go no further. 
One of these first patients, as a thank-offering, bought 
a quantity of Christian books for free distribution in 
his native village, yet he himself has never joined us. 
Thus the results of our work can only partially be 
gauged by the number of admissions to the membership 
of the church, for much Christian knowledge is 
disseminated even where the church does not visibly 
gain. In the eight months of 1885 during which our 
hospital was open there were, however, ten patients 
baptized. One of these was a skin merehant in 
the city, who from the first seemed to value more than 
health the knowledge of Christ he gained while with 
us. He was a most earnest enquirer, talking with the 
hospital evangelist by the hour, and telling other 
patients the good news he himself had so gladly 
received. Before he left the hospital he was baptized. 



ENCOURAGEMENTS. 23- 

and afterwards attended the Sunday services with great 
faithfulness, though his health was very bad. Two and 
a half years later, I was asked to go to see him in his 
own house, as he could not leave the kang. I found 
him lying in a miserable little room behind his shop, 
and as I entered, about thirty people crowded in after 
me. He was dying of an incurable disease, and he 
knew it ; but his mind was at rest. As he heard me 
coming he called out as loudly as his feebleness 
allowed, " The Lord protect you," a common salutation 
among members. I drew near, and asked if he had 
peace. Unhesitatingly, he answered, " Yes, in my 
heart there is perfect peace." After speaking to him 
for a. little while, and saying a few words to the 
by-standers, I prayed with him, and turned to go. He 
took hold of my hand with both his, and bade me 
farewell, saying, "We shall meet again." He died a 
few hours afterwards. 

At the time of the heavy summer rains one wall of 
the hospital fell, and it seemed as if the others would 
follow ; but the house was successfully propped up and 
compelled to give shelter to our sick folk for some time 
longer, though it was miserably cold in winter. 

First Death in the Hospital, 
About the middle of September a man came to us 
who had at one time occupied the much respected 



24 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

position of school teacher. A number of years before, 
his eye-sight began to fail, and soon became so bad that 
he was unable to pursue his calling. Totally blind for 
four years, he was now led to the dispensary in a state 
of poverty and despair. Examination revealed cataract 
in both eyes. He gladly submitted to operation, which 
was followed with most satisfactory results, and in a few 
weeks he was able to read without difficulty. He 
stayed with us for some time, acquired a fair knowledge 
of Christian truth, and, whether listening to the Gospel 
or reading our books for himself, was a most intelligent 
and eager enquirer. Towards the end of November I 
started on a medico-evangelistic journey, leaving the 
few in-patients under the charge of my assistant Uri. 
This man was rejoicing over the recovery of his vision, 
and looking forward to earning an honest livelihood 
once more ; and he expressed to me his great desire to 
be baptized. But when I returned home a fortnight 
later he was dead. A few days after I left he had an 
attack of inflammation of the lungs ; he was poorly clad, 
and the room being very cold and draughty the disease 
developed rapidly. A mounted messenger was sent for 
me, but I arrived too late ; he had died the day before. 
This was the first death under our roof; but we have 
good hope that death proved to him the gate of Life. 
After this the hospital was closed for the remainder of 
the winter. 



ENCOURAGEMENTS. 25 

Brigands, 18S6. 
Early in 1886 a small band of robbers were creating 
great depredations among some villages and scattered 
homesteads in the far east. A company of sixteen 
soldiers were sent to put them down, but weeks passed 
before they could even be found. At last some villagers 
gave information as to where the gang was lodged. 
When night came the soldiers surrounded the house ; 
but the robbers had the alarm given, and all but one 
escaped. This one took up his position behind the 
door, which was very small, admitting only one person 
at a time. A fine young fellow volunteered to lead 
the attack, and the door was soon forced ; but the 
robber, a man of enormous strength, was well armed, 
and made a desperate resistance. The soldier had his 
sword ready, and gave his opponent a severe wound on 
the head, which the latter returned by lodging the 
contents of his pistol, a foreign one, in the intruder's 
right thigh. But other soldiers now pressed in, the 
ruffian was overcome, bound, and, after brutal tortures, 
conveyed to Moukden, where he was executed. A 
fortnight later a military officer called on me, present- 
ing the card of the Moukden Tao-tai, and asking if I 
would do his Excellency the favour of treating the 
wounded soldier. When the man was admitted, I found 
that his health had suffered considerably from the 
knocking about which he had received in travelling. 
3 



26 TEN YEARS IN MANCHUEIA. 

The injured leg was much swollen, and suppuration had 
set in. After two days rest, good food, and proper 
dressing of the wound, the imflammation somewhat 
subsided, and the situation of the bullet was detected. 
The lao-tai, interested in the case, sent an officer to 
witness the extraction, an operation which native 
doctors could never attempt. The bullet was removed 
without difficulty, and the officer took it away with him 
to present to his General (General Tso). The patient 
made a rapid recovery, and left us after a month able 
to walk as well as ever. The Governor-General sent 
him a present of twenty taels (£5), and other mandarins 
followed suit. After leaving us he was decorated with 
a " White Button " as a reward for his gallant action. 
He was a Mohammedan, and showed little interest in 
our teaching ; but his case was of great use in making 
our work known, and disarming suspicion, especially 
among soldiers and military mandarins. General Tso* 

* General Tso was killed at the battle of Ping Yang, September loth, 
1894. Dr Christie writes thus of his death : " To us it is the loss of » 
personal friend. I have known General Tso for over ten years, and he 
always shewed himself well worthy of the respect in which he was held 
by all classes. The poor will miss him this winter, for his soup-kitchens 
were the salvation of many a starving family. The orphans will miss 
him, for a Foundling Hospital was established and chiefly supported by 
him. At the time of the floods in 1888, 1 saw him with his own hands 
distributing food to the famishing. Though a strict Mohammedan, he 
was always friendly to our Christian religion, especially in its benevolent 
aspect. Only a few months ago, he presented a handsome Tablet and 
subscription to our hospital. He was a brave general, a strict disciplin- 
arian, and a terror to law-breakers. He will be missed by all Moukden, 
and by none more than the missionaries.'' 




General Tso. 



2S TEN YEAltS IN MANCHURIA. 

the Commander of the Chinese forces in Manchuria, 
has been our good friend ever since. 

Blind Ghanij. 

A few weeks later, a poor ragged blind man found 
his way to our gate, and begged for admission to the 
hospital. As we were already over-filled, having 
seventeeen in-patients in our small house, and as but 
little could be done for his eyes, we at first refused. 
But when he told his story, — how he had come from a 
village near Mai-mai-gai, over a hundred miles away, 
how he had been attacked by the way and robbed of 
one hundred tiaos (£2 10/) which he had saved for his 
expenses in Moukden, and how he had no money to pay 
for a lodging, — we felt that room must be made for him. 
We have great reason to be thankful that this man was 
not turned away, for he was no other than "Blind 
Ch'ang of Tai-ping-gow," whose name is well known, 
both in Manchuria and in our church at home. Never 
had we a patient who received the Gospel with such 
joy, and the rapidity with which he grasped the leading 
truths of Christianity was remarkable. After a month, 
his sight being somewhat improved, and another com- 
plaint from which he suffered cured, he returned home, 
but without baptism, as we wished to test his character 
and sincerity. He had been well known in his own 
village as a gambler and everything that was bad, so 



ENCOURAGEMENTS. 29 

that on his return people laughed at his new religion. 
" It is all very well for him to reform," they said, " for 
he cannot gamble without eyes ! " But nothing could 
shake his faith in Christ, and soon it became evident 
that it was no passing fancy, but that a lasting change 
had been produced in his life. In fulfilment of a pro- 
mise made to him in Moukden, Eev. Mr Webster visited 
his honie, Tai-ping-goiv, in October. Instead of finding 
one poor bliad man to baptize, there was quite a 
company of believers and enquirers ; and the visible 
church in that neighbourhood was founded by the 
baptism oinine. There have been great advances since 
then, and the church in Mai-mai-gai, Tai-ping-gow, 
and the villages round, now numbers two hundred. 
Many of these have never seen the blind man, but well 
might one of them say, " Had Chdng-shun never been 
blind there might have been no Christians here yet." 
He has many faults, but his zeal has never grown cold, 
and as an evangelist for breaking new ground there is 
not his superior. He is now in a valley in the far east, 
a hundred miles from Tai-ping-gow, where thirty 
have been brought in through his preaching, and 
many more are enquiring. He receives no salary, 
but his flock there support him. He lives in each 
house in turn, and when he needs new clothes the 
women make them for him. When we first saw 
him he was but thirty-seven years of age, so that 



30 TEN YEARS IN MAN(5HURIA. 

we may hope that he will witness for Christ for many 
years to come. 

Wreck of the Hospital. 
When the heavy rains came round once more, our 
hospital, which in the former summer had caused much 
apprehension, fell and became a total wreck. For two 
months we had no accommodation at all for in-patients, 
and then we succeeded in renting for a year a 
compound to the east of our dwelling-house. The 
buildings were not very suitable, but were much better 
than the one which had collapsed. 

Interesting Case. 
There was in Moukden at this time a merchant who 
had suffered since childhood from a very painful 
disease. For two years he had not had a night's rest, 
sleeping only by snatches. He was thirty-eight years 
of age, but the constant pain was ageing him before his 
time. A year before this, he had consulted me, but 
when I explained to him the nature of the operation 
which was the only means of saving his life, he refused 
to submit to it. He then returned to the native 
doctors, of whom, he told me, he had consulted about a 
hundred, besides several witches; but their treatment 
only added to his suffering. He was one of those who 
hated the foreigner, and lost no opportunity of reviling 



ENCOURAGEMENTS. 31 

US. But at last, as his only chance for life, he resolved 
to submit to our treatment. He came in November, 
1886, weak, emaciated, excitable, and worn out with 
prolonged pain and sleeplessness. It was an anxious 
■case for us. He was well-known among merchants, a 
«lass who looked with great disfavour on our presence 
here ; and the operation, if successful, might do much 
to break down their prejudices. Failure, on the other 
hand, might have serious consequences in raising evil 
reports against us. The operation, however, was 
successful, and the patient recovered without a bad 
sympton. A few weeks after returning home he sent a 
subscription to the hospital, and put up a handsome 
tablet as an expression of gratitude. 

Happily, his interest did not end there. He 
-continued to enquire into our religion and study our 
books, and about three years later was admitted into 
the church. Unfortunately, though he himself was a 
sincere Christian, he had a very great hindrance in his 
wife. She had no sympathy with religion of any 
Jkind, and always bore her husband a grudge for 
becoming a Christian, so much so, that she put every 
obstacle in the way of his attendance at the Sunday 
services, and prevented their children from receiving 
Christian instruction. We never suspected this, for she 
came to the dispensary quite readily, and appeared 
exceedingly friendly. Years passed on, until in 



32 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

spring (1893) he had a serious attack of pleurisy. The 
weather was extremely cold, so although he wished to 
be removed to the hospital, I thought it better to leave 
him in his own home which was fairly comfortable. 
His wife had always seemed a very capable person. 
Minute instructions as to treatment were given, and 
one of my assistants visited him several times daily. 
But the progress of his malady was most incompre- 
hensible. One day he would improve so rapidly that 
we thought him out of danger ; next day he would be 
worse than ever. More than once he begged me with 
tears in his eyes to take him to the hospital, saying 
that he knew he would get well there, but that at 
home he would certainly die. With a temperature,, 
however, little above zero, I dare not risk taking him 
into the open air. Had I known then what we found 
out afterwards, the removal would certainly have been 
ventured as his only chance. All the time that we 
were doing our utmost for him, his wife was secretly 
consulting native doctors ; and the alternations of 
medicines accounted for the strange rapid improvements 
and sudden relapses. The whole circumstances are 
very suspicious, and point to a desire on the woman's- 
part for his death. For several nights I had sent a 
man to sit up with him and administer the medicines ; 
and we were hoping that the worst was past. Then 
one evening my man was sent home, the wife insisting 



ENCOURAGEMENTS. 3S 

that she would do all that was wanted. Next morning, 
he was worse. I went to see him in the afternoon, and 
found her, certainly administering the contents of our 
medicine bottles, but they only contained water, the 
medicines having been poured out. It was now too 
late to save him. He knew he was dying, and spoke to 
me in whispers of Christ and the Home to which he was 
going, and, after prayer, I left him. Just before the end 
he sent for me, as he had something special to say. 
But when I arrived I found that the usual wailing had 
already begun, for he was dead. He was buried with 
great pomp as a heathen, but we know that he himself 
is with Christ. 

Amputation. 
In accounts of Medicial Mission work all over China, 
it may be noticed that there is a small number of 
amputations. This is by no means because diseased 
limbs are uncommon, for hardly a week passes without 
such cases coming under our notice. But many a 
Chinaman would rather die than lose a leg or an arm : 
when laid in his cofEn he must be complete, fearing he 
hardly knows what in the dim unknown if any part of 
him be amissing. Another reason is the want of 
confidence in any doctor's verdict, and the lingering 
hope that, after all, the painful member may yet get 
better without any knife. This hope is less unreasonable 



34 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

than one would at first think, for the Chinese have 
wonderful recuperative powers. The longer I am in 
China, the longer time of probation I allow before 
pronouncing the terrible word, amputation. 

About the same time as the last mentioned patient 
was with us, a young fellow of twenty came, whose 
elbow joint had been extensively diseased for five years, 
and was now getting rapidly worse. I proposed to excise 
the joint, or if necessary take off the arm, but to this he 
would not submit. He stayed with us two months, but 
in spite of careful treatment was little improved ; and 
when he left us it was with the promise to return in 
Spring for whatever operation I thought necessary. He 
took with him, however, materials for proper treatment 
of the diseased part, and it began to get gradually 
better. A few months later he came for more medicines, 
and to our surprise his arm was in a fair way to recovery. 
In a few months more the cure was complete, though 
the joint remained somewhat stiff, He was of a very 
bright happy disposition, and a great favourite in the 
hospital. Before long he too applied for baptism, and 
in his village home has been the means of leading many 
into the Church. 

Our first major amputation was performed in the 
Summer of 1887. Three months before, while the 
patient was carting stones from the hills, a large stone 
fell out of the cart, coming with great violence against 



ENCOURAGEMENTS. 35 

his arm, shattering it, and knocking him down so that 
the wheel passed over his foot. He was carried home 
and a native doctor sent for, who, without attempting, to 
replace the bones, applied to the arm the universally- 
used black plaster, and told him not to move it. After 
a week it was noticed that the fingers were getting 
black, and on removing the plaster the whole forearm 
was found to be dead or dying. Since then matters 
had grown steadily worse, and now, after three months 
suffering, doctors and friends had given up all hope of 
recovery, and the patient was carried to the dispensary 
in a dying condition. He was much emaciated, in pain 
with bed sores, and so weak that he could hardly speak. 
One end of the fractured bone was protruding for more 
than an inch, and a splint of millet-stalk, which had 
been used as a support for the arm, had got imbedded 
in the tissues, so that the least movement caused severe 
pain and bleeding. The smell from the putrefying arm 
was most trying to the patient and all about him, and 
his foot too was very painful. He and his friends were 
anxious for amputation as his only hope. He was 
already dying, and if we could not cure him it would at 
all events be an easy way to get quit of life. After a 
few days the operation was performed. His heart was 
so feeble that for some time we feared he would not 
rally from the chloroform. He came round, however, 
and from that day steadily gained strength. After four 



36 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

months he was dismissed cured, and he presented the 
hospital with ten taels (about £2 10/). Since then there 
have been many patients from his village. 



THE NEW HOSPITAL. 37 



Chapter III. 
THE NEW HOSPITAL. 

"pr^OR some months we had been making strenuous 
efforts to get a suitable compound for a permanent 
hospital and dispensary, but this was no easy matter. 
Time after time we seemed about to succeed, but the 
desired property slipped from our grasp. At last, in 
June, 1887, a friendly Mandarin, whose house was not 
more than a hundred yards east of ours, received an ap- 
pointment to another province, and consented to sell us 
his compound. The site was in every way suitable, 
sheltered to the north, and with a fine open out-look 
to the south. We utilized the existing buildings for 
the hospital, and erected an entirely new dispensary. 
All summer the work of building was carried on 
vigorously. The temporary hospital was closed in 
September, and in November the new premises were 
completed. The Mission Board of our church had 
supported us liberally in this matter. " The Children's 
New Year Offering" for 1886 was devoted to the 
building fund, and everything was sanctioned which 




'['he NfU" Hosjiital. 



THE NEW HOSPITAL. S9 

could make our equipment complete. We were 
generously helped also by friends unconnected with 
our church in the Port of Newchwang and elsewhere. 
On the 10th November, a number of official friends 
assembled, and the new premises were formally opened 
by His Excellency Feng Hsiu, President of the Board 
of War. All the missionaries in Manchuria were also 
present. In the afternoon there was a large gathering, 
of members and former patients, who united in 
expressions of good wishes for the future of the work. 

Our Medical Mission thus entered on a new stage of 
development. Hitherto the work had been seriously 
hampered by want of sufficient accommodation, but 
now we were fully equipped for in and out-door work. 
The waiting-room could hold about 150, and the 
hospital could accommodate fifty men and fifteen 
women. God's blessing has followed us in our com- 
fortable wards, as formerly in our more humble 
quarters. 

One of those brought to a knowledge of Christ during 
that winter was a lad of twenty-one, whose leg was- 
diseased. He very quickly became interested in the 
doctrine, grasped the truth with remarkable intelligence,, 
and soon began to tell others of God's mercy. Often 
did I find him pleading earnestly with the patients- 
round him, to forsake idols and believe in the true 
Saviour. He was with us for several months, and his- 



40 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

leg, which was operated on, improved steadily. But ia 
his joy at being able to walk once more, he left his 
room one day and wandered out to the compound when 
a cold wind was blowing. The result was an attack of 
acute inflammation of the lungs, from which he sank 
rapidly. He was anxious for baptism, so the rite was 
administered one afternoon in the presence of other 
patients and the assistants. We then gathered round 
him, and sang at his request, " There is a happy land, 
far, far away." That evening as I was passing through 
the ward I heard his feeble voice calling me in a 
whisper : " Tai-fu," * he said, " there is only one thing 
more I want. I want Jesus to come quickly and take 
me to Himself" His wish was granted. In the 
stillness of the night-time the Master called him home. 

Floods. 
During the summer of 1888 there was an unusual 
amount of rain in the mountains to the east where our 
rivers rise. In Moukden, on the other hand, there was 
drought ; but this was followed by an almost incessant 
downpour during the former half of August. Dark 
rumours began to be circulated of floods among the 
hills, and men shook their heads as the water steadily 
rose in the Hun river, which flows past Moukdei;i 
about two miles to the east and south. A few hundred 

* Title given to Medical Missionaries. 



THE NEW HOSPITAL. 41 

yards to the east of our dwelling houses, and just out- 
side the outer wall of the city, are a large number of 
springs. These form the " small river " which flows 
past our doors about twelve feet below the terrace on 
which our houses are built. It was feared that the big 
river might overflow, and the surplus waters find a 
way for themselves down the small river; and these 
fears were realized. On the evening of the 13th of 
August a large volume of water from the hills came 
rushing down the valley of Him, carrying destruction 
with it. Village after village was swept away, and in 
some no one was left to tell the tale. From one 
village the only survivor was a woman, who was carried 
down ten miles supported by a piece of wood under her 
arms. One of my present students was then a boy in 
his father's home in a small hamlet about fifteen miles 
up the river. He says the water rose rapidly and with 
terrible force, so that there was no time to escape to 
higher ground. House after house came down, and the 
inmates gathered on the fallen walls. They had little 
hope of life, but clung to the ruins with the energy of 
despair. For a whole night and a day they stood there 
without food, the water reaching tlie waist and armpits ; 
and when at last the flood subsided, eleven were missing 
from that one small hamlet. This is but an example 
of what happened in many a village all over the wide 
plain. 
4 



42 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

Meantime the torrent had swept onward until, at a 
point about two miles east of Moukden, where stands a 
large woodyard, the banks of the Hun gradually gave 
way. The greater mass of water left the course of the 
river, and poured down in the direction of the small 
river, submerging miles of low-lying, closely populated 
country. About eight o'clock, on the morning of the 
14th, the water in the small river began to rise with 
extraordinary rapidity, reaching in about three hours 
a height of fifteen feet. The quiet slow water below 
our gates was turned into a deep foaming torrent ; and 
beyond that stretched a great angry sea, out of which 
here and there stood clumps of trees with men and 
women clinging to the branches. Logs from the wood- 
yard, bundles of millet-stalk, trees torn up by the roots, 
tables, chairs, and all kinds of household utensils were 
swept past. Then came horses, mules, cows, dogs ; some 
already drowned, others struggling for life ; followed by 
human beings clinging to floating pieces of wreckage, or 
huddled together on hastily constructed rafts. It was 
impossible for us to render much assistance, but we did 
what we could, and more than one life was saved. Our 
mission terrace was transformed into an island. At our 
own gate the water was several feet deep. The eastern 
wall of our compound and part of the gate-house were 
swept away. All the mission compounds were sub- 
merged, and water was in two of the houses. About 



THE NEW HOSPITAL. 43 

4 p.m. the highest point was reached, about sixteen feet 
above the usual level of the small river, and in the 
evening the water began slowly to subside. 

It is hardly possible to estimate the loss of life caused 
by this flood. -Some villages were wiped out entirely, 
others lost a considerable portion of their inhabitants. 
In Moukden a large part of the suburbs was under 
water, and hundreds were said to be drowned. The loss 
of property was still greater, very many persons being 
permanently reduced from a state of easy comfort to 
extreme poverty. All over Manchuria the rivers were 
flooded more or less, and the crops in great measure 
destroyed ; so that the distress was very wide spread. 

As a consequence of the flood, a fever epidemic 
visited Moukden. The hospital was full of patients at 
the time, and several were infected. Among the women- 
patients was a Mohammedan, blind from cataract. I 
operated, and great was her joy to see the light of day 
after eight years' darkness. Next day she was down 
with fever ; and shortly afterwards I too was taken 
ill, and after some weeks was ordered home on furlough. 

The immediate effects of the flood, however, were not 
the most disastrous ; only when the severe cold of 
winter set in was the misery of the great mass of the 
population realized. The harvest had been destroyed 
in vast regions of rich grain country, and famine 
followed with its attendant famine-fever. The distress 




Dispensary, Siilc View. 



THE NEW HOSPITAL. 45 

was beyond description. One good, however, resulted 
from this evil : many people found out that the foreign- 
ers were their friends, for every Missionary was busy in 
the work of famine relief. Dr Young, who carried on 
the Medical Mission during my absence, did good work 
among the fever-stricken people. Large numbers were 
treated, both in the dispensary and in temporary 
premises at the other side of the citj^ placed at the 
disposal of the mission by our friend General Tso. The 
influence of the work was thus greatly extended. 

In 1892 it was found necessary to close the hospital 
for six months. Its buildings, which, it will be 
remembered, were not new when opened in 1888, were 
now in need of extensive repair, and some alterations 
were also made. The position of the Women's Hospital, 
so near to the men's, prevented women from readily 
entering it ; so the building was now altered, and made 
to form part of the men's quarter, another small 
compound being temporarily rented for female patients. 

Hitherto our only room for operations had been that 
marked in the plan " Hall for Meetings." But this was, 
for many reasons, unsuitable ; so a new operating-room 
was now built, well lighted both from the roof and from 
side-windows. One great defect in our hospital arrange- 
ments had hitherto baffled us, — we could not entirely 
prevent the Kangs from smoking. As this is specially 
harmful to eye-patients, we decided to remove the 



PLAN OF HOSPITAL. 



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THE NEW HOSPITAL. 47 

Kangs from the eye-ward and substitute iron beds, 
heating the room in winter by a stove. This experiment 
had been a signal success both in summer and winter ; 
so much so that we were anxious to place beds in two 
other of our large wards. 

Progress, 1893. 
We now find patients muchreadier to enter the hospital 
than they were in the early days of our work. We of 
course take care never to press any one to stay with us ; 
but indeed this is not necessary. Another consequence 
of the change in the attitude of the people is, that we 
can do many things now which would have been very 
unwise at first. In the early years a death after an 
operation would have been most injurious to our work, 
and I was always unwilling to take in patients for whom 
there was little hope of life. Two of the three patients 
who died under our roof in 1893 would probably have 
been refused admittance seven or eight years ago. But 
now our cause is rather furthered than hindered by 
receiving such cases. When a poor penniless wretch, 
broken down by incurable disease, is taken into our 
comfortable wards, clothed, fed, and cared for, his 
sufferings alleviated, his sores dressed, his last days 
made happy by the consolations of the Gospel, — the 
heathen who see and hear of it learn practically what is 
meant by the religion of Christ. 



48 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

Professional Etiquette. 
But though we have so many proofs of the confidence 
placed in us, we are by no means without disappointments 
and vexations. " Professional Etiquette " is unknown 
in China. When one doctor's medicine fails to cure 
within a few days, another is called without the first 
being even informed ; and it is quite common to use 
the medicine of two doctors at once, in the hope that 
if one does not cure the other may. Even some who 
have manifestly benefited by our treatment, turn to 
their own doctors with aggravating readiness. In the 
spring of this year I was asked to visit the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the province, who was suffering from an 
attack of acute rheumatism. I found him lying in 
agony on his Kang, the least movement causing intense 
pain. Native treatment had produced no effect, and he 
was convincod that he was dying. As this man was 
strongly anti-foreign, and had only sent for me as a last 
resource, it was fortunate that his malady was one 
which readily yielded to treatment. I assured him 
that if he would take our medicine, he would very soon 
be relieved. Two days later I called again, and he met 
me at the door walking without assistance. The cure 
was certainly marvellously rapid, and his household 
looked upon it as little short of a miracle. After a few 
days we heard that a native doctor had been called in 
again, and was taking to himself the whole credit of the 



THE NEW HOSPITAL. 49 

cure. Some months afterwards, however, this patient 
called on me in state, and was exceedingly friendly, but 
neither he nor I referred to his illness. 

Troublesome Patients. 
Sometimes even the readiness of a patient to trust 
us absolutely, causes trouble ; as when a man has such 
faith in our medicine as to swallow the prescription 
along with the pill. On one occasion I put a clinical 
thermometer into a man's mouth to take his temperature, 
and before I could stop him he had crunched it to 
powder and was .proceeding to swallow it. We are 
often hindered, too, by the extreme stupidity of our 
patients, especially women. Last year a woman came 
to us suffering from hip-joint disease, and after operation 
her leg was put in splints. She at once began to 
complain of the discomfort, and cried herself ill, so that 
the splints had to be removed. She then promised to 
lie quite flat and straight ; but after a few hours she 
was found sitting up with her leg bent. Some days later, 
she was seized with dysentery,and a small piece of the rind 
of a coarse kind of melon was found among her bed-clothes. 
A friend had smuggled it in, and she had eaten it all, 
even the rind. She was once more beginning to 
improve, when she began to cry to go home. She was 
tired of our strictness in diet, and saw no connection 
between food and her disease. " I am going home to 



50 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

eat as much fruit as I like," she said. " If I don't die 
I'll come back to have my leg cured; if I die, there's an 
end of it." She went home, and died in four days. 

Gratitude of Patients. 

As a rule, however, our patients thoroughly 
appreciate what is done for them, and manifest much 
gratitude. They are accustomed to such exorbitant 
charges by their own doctors that our "freei healing" 
seems wonderful to them. A young man with a large 
tumour was carried to the hospital one day in a basket. 
A native doctor had undertaken to cure him him for 
24 tiaos (12/), 10 of which were paid on the spot ; but 
his treatment only aggravated the disease. He had 
not been long with us when he was on the fair way 
to recovery, and then the native doctor put in his claim 
for the remaining 14 tiaos, because he was cured. 

Our only charge is a small one for food, just enough 
to cover its purchase, and even this we often provide 
for the utterly destitute. We receive, however, more 
money as thank-offerings from patients than we could 
by charging a registration fee. One time-honoured 
Chinese custom is to present a tablet, which is hung in 
some conspicuous position in or outside the building. 
Of these we have already more than we need, and our 
friends are not encouraged to add to the number. Our 
subscription book is shown to all well-to-do patients and 



THE NEW HOSPITAL. 51 

visitors, and we are gradually accustoming them to the 
idea that we prefer money for the hospital rather than 
useless presents. 

Of course some take advantage of us, and give nothing 
when they could well afford it. About thirty miles 
away lives a prosperous inn-keeper, who was blind from 
cataract. This year both eyes have been operated on, 
and his sight is now very good. He is an old man and 
rather deaf But it was remarkable how his deafness 
increased when the subject of religion was introduced ; 
and he was deafest of all when my assistant explained to 
him that he ought to show his gratitude in a more practical 
way than words, and subscribe to pay for the keep of 
some who were not so well off as he. As he was too 
deaf to hear a word of this, the subscription book was 
brought, and he was made to use his newly found sight 
in examining it. After this he could refuse no longer, 
and put his name down for fifty tiaos, 25/ — which has 
not been paid yet. But to all teaching he remains 
obdurate. Passing through his village some time after- 
wards, I stayed at his inn, and he was loud in his 
praises of what I had done for him. " Do not thank 
me," I said, "thank God. It is by His mercy you see." 
"No, no! not at all! It is all the doctor's skill!" he 
protested. This is fortunately an exceptional case. 

We are convinced that medical fees would greatly 
lessen the influence of our work as a benevolent agency. 



52 TEN YEARS IN MANCHUBIA. 

However small the charge, the Chinese would regard us 
as merchants, and it would be difficult to convince them 
that we were not making a profit. As it is, subscriptions 
are increasing. Twenty taels (£5) were on one occasion 
sent by an official, but the servant to whom he entrusted 
it absconded, and has never been seen since. When His 
Excellency heard of it he laughed heartily, and sent 
twenty taels more. The same sum has been given 
several times by others. The poor, too, often give a 
little, the smallest sum we have received being 500 
cash ("about 3d.). 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 53 



Chapter IV. 
EVANGELISTIC WORK. 

"T~T is difficult to speak separately of our Evangelistic 
Department, for it forms an integral part of every 
branch of our work. All our assistants and students are 
Christian, and by word and example do much in 
commending the Gospel to others. The day's work is 
begun by having worship with the in-patients, after 
which we go round the hospital wards. The out-patients 
begin to gather at an early hour, especially in summer, 
and preaching goes on all forenoon in the waiting-room. 
Some who have time at their disposal remain to hear 
more, after being examined and prescribed for. Much 
of what is said there is but seed by the wayside ; but 
now and again there is a little good ground too, and a 
man who has begun to listen because he had nothing 
better to do while waiting, goes on to enquire because 
the "words are good." And on the hearts of many 
who go their way apparently untouched, an impression 
is made, so that when, perhaps years afterwards, the 



54 TEN YEAES IN MANCHURIA. 

Gospel once more comes near to them, they receive it 
with gladness. Some buy books and tracts, and these 
find their way to distant homes where a missionary has 
never been seen. 

In the hospital more satisfactory religious work is 
done. Besides the morning worship there is a service 
every afternoon when an address is given. Attendance 
at these meetings is purely optional, but the majority 
of the patients come gladly, the hymn-singing being a 
great attraction. The most important part of all our 
definitely spiritual work, however, is conversation with 
the patients individually ; for in this way we get near 
to them, are able to meet their difiiculties, and bring 
the truth home to them. Our patients are usually 
with us for weeks, sometimes months ; and when we 
have room we encourage enquirers to stay with us as 
long as they can. 

One great change has taken place in our methods of 
work since the early days. Patients used frequently to 
be baptized from the hospital or dispensary, so that we 
could reckon in numbers the additions to the church 
which were the direct fruit of our work. During the 
first four and a half years, fifty-four patients were 
baptized, but after that a new arrangement was made. 
The church had greatly extended, persecution of its 
members had in large measure died out, and it was 
feared that some might seek to enter it without 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 55 

realizing what this implied. So it was agreed that, 
unless under exceptional circumstances, no man should 
be baptized until he had passed through three months' 
probation, after expressing his desire for the rite. 
Thus our patients are not baptized as hospital converts, 
but each man in his own home enters the church like 
any other enquirer ; and it is impossible to have any 
idea of the numbers brought in through the medical 
mission. Many villages are represented on our register. 
Last year there were over 300, some of them very 
many miles from Moukden. A list is kept of those 
who seem interested, and every now and then the 
evangelist spends a few weeks in visiting these people 
in their homes, and bringing them into contact with 
the nearest congregation. We are thus unable to say 
much about fruit gathered in recently, but the spiritual 
influence of the work is far greater than in the early 
days. Many of the patients of former years have been 
baptized within the past few years, and we hope that the 
enquirers of the present will make the converts of the 
future. We are chary of being over-confident of any 
man whom time has not proved. Sometimes those of 
whom we are very hopeful fall back sadly, while others 
who seem in no way remarkable become centres of 
Christian influence. 



.56 TEN Y'EARS IN MANOHUIUA. 

Work by Converts. 

In the autumn of 1886, a young man from a village 
near Tie-ling came to us to be cured of the opium 
habit. He was but twenty-five, but had smoked for 
five years "for pleasure," he said; and now the pleasure 
had become a very inconvenient one. He seemed very 
determined to give it up, and also became an earnest 
enquirer. When he went home, he continued to read 
our books and frequented the chapel in Tie-ling, 
where, in the following spring, he was baptized. 
Shortly before his baptism, two brothers, relatives of 
his, came down to Moukden, also, to be treated for 
opium smoking. They were middle-aged men ; one 
had smoked for twenty years, the other seemed in bad 
health ; and, altogether, they were not nearly such 
promising cases as their young friend. They had heard 
the gospel from him, and learned as much as they 
could while with us. A few months later they, too, 
were admitted into the church in Tie-ling. Time 
passed on. One by one their friends and neighbours 
became Christians too, till now, out of that village of 
about 100 souls, thirty are members, and only one 
family keeps up any form of idol worship. It has 
practically become a Christian village. But the younw 
man who was the beginning of it all has fallen back 
sadly. For several years he did well, studied faithfully. 



EVANGELISTIC WOEK. 57 

and was taken on as an evangelist. He was a favourite 
with every one, but, unfortunately, was too easily led. 
Opium once more gained its hold over him ; deceit, 
lying, and other evils followed in its train, and he had 
to be dismissed from the service of the church. The 
two brothers who had followed him into the faith have 
stood firm, and proved the mainstay of the little 
congregation in that valley. One of them went about 
selling tracts and preaching on his own account, and 
was instrumental in rousing a great number of the 
inhabitants of a large neighbouring valley to turn from 
idols to seek the living and true God. 

Tie-ling. 
The only out-station in which we have a dispensary 
is Tie-ling, a large and growing town about fifty miles 
north of Moukden. I visited it first towards the end of 
1885, when mission work was just beginning there, and 
treated a large number of patients. This visit did 
much to remove the anti-foreign feeling which had 
been strongly manifested. In 1891, Dr Young opened' 
a dispensary there, and visited it once a month to see 
patients. The subsequent success of the Mission in 
Tie-ling is largely owing to his work. These visits are 
still continued as frequently as possible ; but, with our 
present staff, the work in Moukden needs all our 
strength, and prevents us giving full justice to Tie-ling. 



58 TKN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

During the year 1893, 2,237 men and 1,208 women 
were seen there and prescribed for. 

Itinerating. 
To the work of itinerating, also, I have been 
compelled to give less time than I would wish. My 
last medico-evangelistic jom-ney, in the spring of 1893, 
strengthened my conviction as to the importance of this 
department. Along with one of my dispensers I saw 
patients on four days in three large towns. In that 
time 680 cases were treated, and several hundred 
disappointed people had to return as they came, 
because our medicines were exhausted. It is true that 
this work is not very satisfactory either from a medical 
or an evangelistic point of view, as the patients are, for 
the most part, seen only once. Many, however, are 
relieved and some cured, prejudices are broken down, a 
friendly feeling is produced, and thus the way is opened 
up for the Gospel. 

Assistants.* 
One of the greatest difficulties experienced in 
carrying on medical missionary work in China is that 
of finding suitable assistants. Our standard must 
necessarily be high as to previous education, personal 
character, and Christian knowledge. But our church 
*See Frontispiece, 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 59 

contains few educated men, and still fewer who can 
afford or are willing to receive for years only a student's 
allowance. Then, when we do find a man who seems 
to be what we desire, there is great danger of the very 
training we give proving a snare to him. As soon as 
he has learned a little of the healing art, he is tempted 
to leave us, set up for himself, and try to make a 
profitable business. We have learned, by somewhat 
bitter experience, the need of the utmost carefulness as 
to what men we employ. 

The first man I engaged was Hung Sze Knei, who 
acted as my personal teacher. He had been left an 
orphan in a country village, had come to Moukden to 
push his fortune, and was making a miserable pittance 
by picture-drawing. He was one of the early members, 
baptized at the beginning of 1879 at the age of 
thirty-one, but was still in the utmost poverty when, 
nearly four years later, he was employed by us. As 
soon as we opened the dispensary he began to assist 
me, and afterwards became head-dispenser. 

Mr Wei. 
Shortly before Hung entered the church, a man of a 
very different stamp had been baptized of the name of 
Wei-Hsiao-Ta. His family was well to do ; he had 
received a good education, and was employed in a large 
drug-shop in Moukden. From boyhood his mind had 



60 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

a religious bent, and at one time he wished to become 
a Buddhist priest; but now Christianity satisfied all 
his aspirations. Those in authority in his shop, however, 
did not approve of his new ideas, and when he one day 
refused to sacrifice to the god of medicine as he was 
ordered, he was summarily dismissed. In the autumn of 
1883, when at the age of twenty-five, I engaged him as 
my assistant, and for the next four years he and Hung 
were my only medical helpers. I taught them what I 
could, and they succeeded in picking up a good deal, 
especially Mr Wei. 

When our new hospital was opened in 1887, it was 
necessary to have additional help, and I took in four 
young men as students. Unfortunately, only one of 
these was a Christian, as it was impossible to find 
suitable men in the membership. This did not prove a 
very successful experiment. Within a year we parted 
with two of them ; and the remaining two, both by this 
time members, after having much time and trouble 
expended on them, have had to be dismissed ; one for 
opium-smoking, the other for dishonesty. Hung, too, 
has caused great disappointment. He had been with us 
ten years, and much had been done for him; but he left 
us a few months ago in a way not very creditable to his 
Christian profession. Indulgence in the use of alcohol 
was in great measure to blame for this ; and now, in the 
desire to make more than the salary we were able to 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 61 

give him, he is proclaiming himself as fully qualified to 
practise the western method of healing, 

Mr Wei, on the other hand, becomes month by- 
month of more use to me ; and the work could not well 
be carried on without his assistance. In later years, 
when the teaching has been more systematic, no one 
has shown more interest in it than he ; and he has now 
acquired a very fair knowledge both of medicine and 
surgery. He is able to examine and prescribe for a 
considerable portion of the out-door patients; and he 
performs minor operations very satisfactorily. He thus 
relieves me of a large part of the work, and I have 
never had reason to regret the confidence I have placed 
in him. 

Medical Students. 

In the autumn of 1891 I made it known that I was 
prepared to receive the names of Christian young men 
who were willing to devote themselves to the work of 
medical-evangelists. Within a few months a number 
applied, out of whom fourteen were selected as fit for 
examination on their own classics and Christian know- 
ledge. Six of these were enrolled as students, and 
agreed to undergo a course of five years' study. With 
so much other work depending on me, it is impossible 
to devote so much time as could be desired to the 
training of these young men. During their first spring 



62 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

and summer they were taught pharmacy arid dispensing; 
and at the end of the session they passed a creditable 
examination. The following winter I lectured on 
Anatomy and Chemistry ; last summer on the eye and 
its diseases ; and this winter our principal subject is 
Physiology. Besides this, they receive regular instruction 
in chemical medicine and surgery ; they dispense all the 
medicine to the out-patients ; and each has charge of a 
ward where he does all the work of dressing, and a good 
deal of what is done by nurses in our home infirmaries. 
On the whole, the young men now under training have 
given great satisfaction, and promise to become useful 
Avorkers in the Master's vineyard. 



women's work. 63 



Chapter V. 
WOMEN'S WORK. 

"TN many parts of China it seems to be very difficult 
fora medical missionaryto reach the female population ; 
but this is not so in Moukden, nor in the towns and 
villages round. From the very first about a quarter of 
our patients were women, and these seemed to be very 
little reluctant about consulting a male doctor, especially 
when they found his wife with him. The principal 
barrier here is not sex but nationality ; and the women, 
being far more ignorant than their husbands, retain 
their prejudices and superstitions longer. But with the 
gradual diminution of suspicion of the foreigner, the 
number of our female patients has increased, and now 
forms more than a third of the whole. For the first 
four years of our work we had no way of treating women 
except as out-patients, but several of these were led into 
the church through what they heard in the waiting-room. 
Our dispensary was frequently visited by an old 
woman of sixty, broken down with chronic rheumatism 
and other complaints. She came at first for her bodily 



64 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

ailments, but continued to attend regularly to listen to 
the preaching, and in October 1884 she was baptized. 
She was never a very intelligent women, and seems 
now to be in her dotage; but almost every Sunday, 
leaning on her big stick, she makes her way to the 
church. She was asked one day how much she under- 
stood of the service. " / can 't understand," she said, as 
if that was far too much to expect of her, " I just 
understand ' Jesus loves me," " referring to the well 
known hymn which had just been sung. 

Another frequent attender at the dispensary was a 
girl of fourteen, who was greatly interested in the 
preaching, and soon made up her mind that she would 
be Jesus' disciple. In September 1885 she was examined 
for baptism ; but she got so excited when questioned, 
that she answered wildly, and it was thought better to 
delay until she should be a little older. The poor child 
was greatly disappointed, and went home crying bitterly. 
A month later she begged to be examined again, and 
was found to have grown wonderfully in knowledge. 
She seemed a sincere believer in Christ, so she was 
baptized without further delay. After this she spent a 
few years in the Members' Girls' School, and was one of 
the most intelligent pupils. She is now a wife and 
mother in a Christian home. 

We, of course, felt greatly the want of a place for 
female in-patients; so when our new premises were 



WOME^''S WORK. 65 

arranged, a part of the compound was set aside for 
women, and opened for their use in the spring of 1888. 
By walling it off completely from the rest of the hospital, 
and putting its only entrance in front towards the 
dispensary, we thought it was sufficiently like a separate 
compound to allow of women coming to stay there. We 
had not opened it many months before we found our 
mistake ; for women were reluctant to enter it, except 
those of the poorest classes. One of those we received 
during the first summer was a girl of seventeen from 
the neighbourhood of Kai-yuen. She was much 
impressed with what she heard, but she returned home 
and we heard no more about her. With women even 
more frequently than with men, the bread cast upon the 
waters is only found after many days ; for it is difficult 
for a woman openly to avow herself a Christian, unless 
those in her home are in sympathy. Three years 
afterwards Mr Ross was visting the neighbourhood of 
Kai-yuen, and among those baptised was this girl. 
Her old father, aged seventy-seven, and her brother, 
had been led to enquire by listening to her words, and 
were admitted to the church along with her. 



Women's Hospital. 

A great advance was made in the medical work 
among women when their hospital was removed to a 



66 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

separate compound, even though that compound is far 
from suitable. It was rented in April 1892 as a 
temporary place, but we are still using it. We hope 
soon to get a suitable site for building, but we are 
meeting with the same difficulties now as formerly in 
the case of the Men's Hospital. Much blessing, however, 
has attended our work among the women. We have a 
very good worker in our matron, Mrs Wang, who does 
not spare herself night nor day, ministering to the 
bodily and spiritual wants of the patients. On Women's 
Days she spends the forenoon in the dispensary, and to 
this may largely be attributed the increased readiness 
which women show in entering the hospital. This is 
specially Mrs Christie's department, as she takes entire 
charge of all but the strictly medical work. Most of the 
patients are accompanied by a relative to attend on 
them, so that the number who come under our roof is 
much larger than appears from the statistics. Many 
have shown great interest in Christian truth, and have 
invited Mrs Wang to visit them and tell them more. 
Unfortunately her hospital duties leave her little time 
for this important work, but she has visited several 
homes, and has been very warmly received. A monthly 
meeting is now being started for former patients and 
their friends ; and it is hoped that by this means those 
living within reach, who become interested while with 
us, may be led further into the light, and may by and 



women's work. 67 

by come forward to profess their faith in Christ. One 
woman was baptized in the summer of 1892, after being 
some time in the hospital ; and then returned to her 
home, forty miles away among the hills, to proclaim to 
all her friends what she had learned. Nine months 
later she returned for further instruction, saying that 
her husband and about a dozen of her neighbours 
believed in Christ. 

Vis i ting Patien ts. 

One important work among women has been carried 
on quite apart from hospital or dispensary. It is often 
impossible for the wives and daughters of Mandarins to 
come to us, so I have been from the first frequently 
called to treat them in their own homes, Mrs Christie 
often accompanying me. There were, of course, some 
little difficulties to be overcome. For instance, in 1884! 
I was asked to see a lady, who for eighteen months had 
suffered great pain in one foot owing to tight-binding. 
But there is nothing to which a China woman is more 
averse than imcovering her foot, even before those of 
her own sex, and much more before a man ; so the 
process of examination on my first visit was rather 
comical. The foot and leg were held by several 
attendants, and only the diseased part was shown. On 
subsequent visits, however, I was allowed to see it 
properly, and to operate. The calls to visit, in their 



68 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

houses, both men and women of all ranks, are indeed 
far too numerous to be responded to, interesting and 
important as this work is. Only those can be attended 
in this way who are quite unable to come to us. 



SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 69 



Chapter VI. 
SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 

rPHE latitude of Moukden is 41° 51' 00" N., about the 
same as that of Rome and Chicago ; but it will be 
noticed from the following Table, that our extremes, both 
of heat and cold, are very great. The climate of Manchuria 
is distinctly continental ; not affected by oceanic currents, 
and the wide level plain of the southern province has 
no shelter from the cold blasts which in winter sweep 
across the Siberian and Mongolian plains. The absence 
of forests and larger vegetation also influences the 
temperature and humidity. (Unfortunately we have no 
reliable observations of the humidity of the atmosphere.) 
Although the temperature sometimes falls to 30° fahr. 
below zero, and rises in summer to 97°, so dry is the 
•atmosphere that the sensations do not indicate such 
extremes. 

Climate Influences. 

The phenomena of disease fluctuate with the seasons. 
On the whole the Winter months are favourable to 







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SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 71 

health ; at least to such as are comfortably housed and 
clad. The atmosphere is usually clear, dry, bracing, 
somewhat stimulating to the nervous system, and 
therefore trying to those suffering from insomnia, 
cardiace, weakness, hysteria, and other diseases of 
nervous origin. During this season, as might be 
expected, pulmonary and rheumatic affections head the 
list. Phthisis has many victims among the poor, and 
especially young women. In some the disease- runs a 
very rapid course, with all the symptoms of acute 
tuberculosis. Many of these patients live in over- 
crowded, badly ventilated rooms with damp mud floors, 
and expectorate freely anywhere. The atmosphere 
must be loaded with bacilli, yet the idea of the 
communicability of the disease never seems to have 
entered the Chinese mind. Sfitting of blood is common, 
very often without any physical sign to account for it. 
In many of these cases the cause is said by the patient 
to have been a fit of anger. Under treatment, the 
symptom usually disappears without leaving any trace 
of structural disease. Frost-bite, of more or less 
severity, is almost daily met with ; and the mortality 
among beggars from exposure during the extreme cold 
is very great. Sometimes, in the early winter, a fog 
hangs over the earth, with a few days of mild 
temperature, which the Chinese regard as most 
unhealthy. In 1892, such a condition was followed by 



72 TKN YEAllS IN MANCHURIA. 

a severe epidemic of Influenza, from which natives and 
foreigners suffered alike. 

As Spring approaches, the changes of temperature 
are great and sudden. In March, high south winds 
prevail ; hard roads are rapidly broken up so as to be 
almost impassable ; and frozen rivers become navigable 
once more. The high tension of winter is relaxed, the 
digestive powers seem weakened, appetite fails, and 
many suffer from great depression of the physical 
energies. Measles and Scarlet-fever are not infrequent 
at this time. In an epidemic of the former which 
visited us last spring, the cases first treated were mild ; 
but it soon developed into a very malignant form, 
attended with high and persistejit fever and severe 
pulmonary complications. Convalescence was generally 
slow, being, in some cases, retarded by glandular 
abscesses and pustular eruptions. A common cause of 
Eye-disease about this season is dust-storms. The 
atmosphere is then loaded with sand and impalpable 
dust. This, driven by the strong wind, makes itself 
most disagreeable to travellers, and penetrates into 
every corner even of the best-built house. The 
temperature during spring and autumn is moderate, 
and the weather generally very pleasant. 

In summer, the atmosphere is dry; but there are 
occasional heavy showers lasting for a few hours. The 
heat usually attains its height towards the end of July. 



SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 73 

This year, during the latter half of that month, the 
day-temperature ranged from 91° F. to 96° F. ; but 
during the night the thermometer is rarely above 7o° F. 
The natives move about with heads uncovered during 
the greatest heat, and do not seem to suffer in any way 
from the exposure. The atmospheric conditions at this 
season favour the development of diseases of the 
alimentary system. Diarrhoea and Dysentery are very 
prevalent. The heavy rains generally begin early in 
August, after which cooler weather sets in. 

Malaria. 
The development of Malaria during the last few years 
is worthy of note. In former reports, covering a period 
of five years, only twenty-eight cases were recorded, 
and most of these came from other parts of China. 
Last year, over 400 came under treatment at the 
dispensary. The increase was first noticed in the 
spring of 1889, and was attributed to the floods of the 
previous autumn. At that time, large stretches of 
country were under water, and the subsoil became 
saturated. During the following summer, the action of 
the powerful sun causing evaporation, and the 
decomposition of vegetable matter, brought about the 
conditions favourable to the development of the disease. 
Since then the number of cases has steadily increased. 
The variety met with is chiefly the intermittent, and 



74 TEX YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

the majority of our patients have been young men. I 
have not observed that opium smoking affords any 
protection. The natives seem very helpless in the 
matter of treatment. They know a little about the 
value of arsenic, but they do not understand how to 
administer it ; and my assistant tells me that he 
believes as many are killed as are cured by it. 

Sanitation. 
Another local condition which influences disease is 
the insanitary surroundings of the people. In the 
midst of populous parts of the city are large stagnant 
ponds, the water of which is used for all purposes. 
Anything of the nature of drainage, or cleaning of 
streets or compounds, is quite unknown. The interior 
of the houses of the poorer class is often filthy beyond 
description ; and the personal habits of the people are 
far from cleanly. Yet it is surprising how little 
the Chinese seem to suffer from diseases which arise 
from such conditions. 

Food. 
The staple food of most of the people, large millet, is 
coarse and, when badly cooked, very indigestible. It 
is usually gulped down in large quantities, along with 
salted cabbage, hard beans, garlic, or raw vegetables, 
causing delatation of the stomach and all forms of 
Dyspepsia. Fish, eggs, and meat are eaten in advanced 



SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 75 

stages of decomposition ; and in summer a great deal of 
unripe fruit is consumed. This also frequently gives 
rise to disorders of the digestive system. 

Rickets. 
It is a remarkable fact that during ten years' work in 
Manchuria not a single case of Rickets has come under 
observation, although the factors which are considered 
most potent in its causation are met with on every 
hand. If bad feeding, farinaceous diet, prolonged 
lactation, overcrowding, deficient sunlight, or bad 
ventilation produce the disease, it should be found in 
every home. Some children are from birth fed on rice, 
flour, or millet-slops, which contain starch in abundance, 
and the use of cow's milk is unknown. Suckling is 
usually prolonged to the age of three or four years, 
sometimes longer, when the mother's milk is most 
unwholesome. Thousands of children are, during the 
severe cold of winter, shut up for months in over- 
crowded, badly ventilated dwellings, where they have 
neither fresh air nor exercise. And yet Rickets, so far 
0,s I can find out, is unknown in Manchuria. 

Opium Sonoking. 
Opium smoking, which is very common in this part 
of China, has an important bearing on many kinds of 
disease. It is estimated that about forty per cent, of 



76 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

the adult male population of Moukden indulge in it, 
and a large number of women, especially those 
belonging to the upper class. Indian opium is chiefly- 
used by the rich, but is fast being supplanted by the 
native-grown article, which is much cheaper. Opium 
pills and foreign morphia tabloids are used by some as 
a more convenient form ; for smoking requires much 
time, and often interferes with business. Many of the 
poor drink an infusion made from the ashes and 
scrapings of the pipe. 

Some begin to use opium to relieve pain. Others 
take it to cheer them in sorrow and trouble, or to 
distract their thoughts ; for the Chinese have no such^ 
social pleasures as we have in the west ; their lives are 
colourless and tame. But the vast majority smoke 
merely as a luxury, in order to enjoy the pleasant 
exhilaration which it causes for a time. 

The effect of opium on the system is greatly modified 
by circumstances. It is said that some men of strong 
will increase the dose so slowly, that they never go 
beyond what is called moderation, and are not 
incapacitated from pursuing their calling. There is 
some truth in this ; for those who are in comfortable 
circumstances, with healthy surroundings, good food, 
and strong constitutions, can smoke for a lengthened 
period without any apparent deleterious result. The 
careless observer might conclude that the habit was for 



SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 77 

them harmless ; but I do not believe that anyone uses 
opium for any length of time without more or less real 
injury: digestion is impaired, the secretions of important 
organs are diminished, functional activity is lowered, 
and the powers of resistance are greatly lessened, so 
that the consiimer is extremely liable to succumb to 
acute disease. In an epidemic of Cholera in 1883, the 
mortality among opium smokers was appalling. The 
Chinese went so far as to say that no smoker who was 
seized with the disease recovered. An official of my 
acquaintance smoked heavily for thirty years and 
seemed none the worse, but I should not like to be his 
medical attendant through any serious illness. 

On the other hand I have met with hundreds who, 
with half the quantity smoked by that official, have 
had body and mind shattered ; and very many are 
reduced to poverty, having spent their all to satisfy 
their craving. One of these had occupied an important 
official position, but he and his family were reduced to 
poverty and despair. He came to me to be cured of the 
habit, and was admitted to the hospital. He was old, 
feeble, and his heart very weak ; and after some days of 
careful treatment and observation, I came to the 
conclusion, that giving up opium, which he had used so 
long, would mean death to him. When I told him this, 
he pled with me to take away his life rather than leave 
him helpless in his miserable condition. 



78 TEN YEARS IN MANCHUKrA. 

A more serious evil even than misery and beggary is 
the moral effect on the consumer. The immediate 
result of a dose or smoke of opium is mental stimulation ; 
but with prolonged, even with moderate use, the 
nervous centres are affected, the higher faculties of the 
mind are enfeebled, the moral sensibility is gradually 
blunted, and the ethical distinction between right and 
wrong, truth and falsehood, becomes confused. The 
Chinese themselves recognise this, and do not trust an 
opium smoker; and merchants in this city do not 
readily employ any young man who has acquired the 
habit. I have conversed on the subject with many 
intelligent men, officials and others, and even among 
those who use it, I have never met one who said 
anything in its favour. 

Many desire to give up opium smoking, especially 
when its evil effects begin to appear, or when they can 
no longer afford it ; but so firm is the hold it gains over 
them that very few succeed in overcoming it without 
help. In the early years of our work such people came 
to us in large numbers as out-patients, and for these I 
prepared pills, containing tonics combined with a small 
quantity of morphia, which was gradually diminished. 
There was a great demand for this medicine, but I soon 
found that the cure was worse than the disease ; for they 
only learned to eat instead of smoke the drug. Morphia 
tabloids have been given away in large quantities by 



SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 79 

well-meaning people, and have, in my opinion, done 
serious harm. 

In later years we have only treated opium smokers as 
in-patients, and we cut off all forms of the drug from 
the commencement ; or, if absolutely necessary, inject a 
little morphia hypodermically. Our rules for such 
patieats are stringent, and their physical powers and 
strength of will are tried severely. But this branch of 
our work is most unsatisfactory. Even after resolutely 
enduring the suffering caused by the renunciation of 
opium, the majority of those whom we have treated 
have returned, sooner or later, to their old habit. As 
our accommodation is limited and can be better used for 
other patients, we now admit very few of this class, 
those few being such as seem in dead earnest. The 
native church has unanimously agreed that no opium 
smoker should be baptized until he has entirely given 
up the habit; and several of those treated this year were 
applicants for baptism. The grace of God can and does 
enable opium smokers to stand firm ; but they stand on 
slippery ground, and, sad to say, many fall of whom we 
had hoped better things. 

In the spring of 1886 a young man from the neigh- 
bourhood of Kai-yuen came to us to be cured of the 
opium habit. He was employed in a government office, 
and it is said that 80 per cent, of these yamen men 
smoke. He had begun seven years before, and was now 



80 TEN YEARS IN MANCHUKIA. 

using about a quarter of an ounce dailj'. The struggle 
in givingjit up was, for him, a severe one, and for nights 
his eyes did not close in sleep, in spite of sleeping 
draughts. One evening about seven o'clock, a week after 
his admission, my assistant came for me in great alarm, 
saying that this man had suddenly gone mad. I found 
him outside the hospital, much excited, held by two 
men, and quite unable to give any account of himself. 
No one could explain his condition, but I at once 
suspected Chloral Hydrate poisoning. Investigation 
revealed that a bottle, which the dispenser had carelessly 
left within his reach, containing at least two drachms of 
Chloral Hydrate, was now empty. The patient soon 
became comatose, and it was not until after seven hours' 
active application of remedies that we were able to 
bring him back to consciousness. Next day, though 
sleepy, he did not seem much the worse. In about ten 
days more the craving for opium had entirely ceased, 
and his general health was established. He stayed 
with us for a month longer to learn more of Christianity, 
and was baptized before going home. Being a scholar 
and an intelligent man, he was able to read our books, 
and seemed well fitted to proclaim the gospel to others. 
This he did to his family and friends, and witnessed a 
good confession in spite of much persecution. The 
following spring he brought his wife and children to 
Moukden, where they also were baptized. The same 



SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 81 

year he voluntarily accompanied me on a medico- 
evangelistic journey, and made himself most useful in 
keeping order among the patients. On our way back 
we visited his home — a Christian home, which seemed 
likely to be a centre of light for that district. 

On my return from furlough a few years later, 
I was grieved beyond measure to learn that this man 
had fallen back, and was smoking as much as ever. 
His position in the Yaraen exposed him to daily, 
almost hourly temptation, against which he had been 
unable to stand. We have, however, by no means lost 
hope of him ; but his case shows how difificult it is for 
one who has come under the bondage of this habit to 
regain his freedom. 

Native Treatment. 
Another influence in aggravating if not causing 
disease, is the methods of treatment adopted by the 
natives. Any man may practise medicine who wishes 
to do so ; he has only to read a few books written 
centuries ago, and he is fully equipped. The best of 
them know nothing of those sciences which form the 
basis for the rational treatment of disease. Medicines 
they have, but they do not understand their action on 
the system. According to Chinese theory the human body 
is composed of five elements ; metal, wood, water, fire, 
and earth. As long as these are in equilibrium health 



82 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

is enjoyed ; when they are out of proportion disease 
ensues, and the object of treatment is to bring them 
back to their normal relations. Medicines are classified 
according to the five colours — white, green, black, red, 
and yellow — and the five tastes — bitter, acrid, sour, 
sweet, and salt, — corresponding in order to the five 
elements, and to the five organs of the body — lungs, 
liver, kidneys, heart, and stomach. Disease is diagnosed 
by the pulse, the left indicating the condition of the 
heart, liver, and kidneys ; and the right the lungs, 
stomach, and the " gate of life." When a patient enters 
the consulting-room for the first time he does not expect 
to be asked any questions. Silently he stretches out 
one hand after the other, and the doctor, by placing 
three fingers on each pulse, is supposed to recognise 
the seat and nature of the disease. 

Of Surgery, Chinese doctors know nothing. They 
cannot tie an artery, amputate a finger, or perform the 
simplest operation. There is at present in the hospital 
a man with a severe gun-shot wound. The other day, 
after the extraction of a piece of bone, a quantity of 
pure mercury poured out. The patient explained that 
a native doctor had put it in, assuring him that it would 
melt the bullet, and that both would flow out together. 
Another patient now under our care is a boy of nine 
who, about a month ago, twisted his leg while playing. 
He complained of pain, but could move about quite 



SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 83 

freely. There was no doctor in the village, but one old 
woman after another was consulted. In spite of their 
rubbing or kneading the pain continued, so the parents 
took the boy to a famous doctor in Moukden. This 
man with great violence pulled and twisted the limb, till 
the boy was screaming with agony. Before this operation 
the patient could walk well, but now he could not even 
stand. Twenty days later he was brought to us. The 
hip was much, swollen, and so painful that examination 
was impossible till chloroform was administered. The 
joint was found to be dislocated, doubtless as the result 
of the heroic treatment to which it had been subjected. 
The father said that ever since that day the limb had 
been bent and shorter than the other. The dislocation 
was easily reduced, and we hope to see the little fellow 
all right again in a few weeks. 

The only instruments which natives use are long 
needles with which they pierce various parts of the 
body. Several cases have come under my observation 
where this treatment was followed by disastrous results. 
Having no knowledge of Anatomy, they often pass them 
into large blood-vessels and important organs ; and I 
am told that in some instances immediate death has 
resulted. A little child was carried to the dispensary 
presenting a pitiable spectacle. The doctor had told 
the parents that there was an excess of fire in its body, 
for which he must use cold needles, so he had pierced 



84 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

the abdomen deeply in several places. The poor little 
sufferer must have died shortly afterwards. 

Another very injurious method of treatment is the 
application of a black resinous plaster, which is univer- 
sally used for all kinds of aches and pains, bruises and 
swellings, wounds and sores. A small pimple or abscess 
appears ; at once the plaster is put on, and the free exit 
of any discharges prevented. The result often is serious 
disease. Indeed, in almost every case of bone or joint 
disease which comes to us, the condition is aggravated, 
if not caused by, this deadly plaster; and yet the 
Chinese, from the highest to the lowest, have unbounded 
faith in it. A short time ago a little boy of nine was 
carried to the dispensary in a basket. One leg was 
covered with the plaster, and when this was removed, 
the smell could almost be " heard," as the Chinese say. 
A large part of the tibia was bare and projecting. His 
mother said that no medicine had been applied except 
this plaster, which had been put on first about fifteen 
months before, when there was only a small sore place. 
We took him into the hospital, treated the leg ration- 
ally, and after a few days the diseased bone was entirely 
removed. His satisfactorj' recovery is another instance 
of the recuperative power of the Chinese, already 
alluded to. When he came he was much emaciated, 
with weak rapid pulse and bad cough, and death seemed 
not far off. In a few weeks he was walking about the 



SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE DISEASE. 85 

women's hospital, rosy and strong, as merry as a boy 
could be, and was learning very fast to read and sing 
our hymns. He and his mother, w^ho was with him in 
the hospital, have made a stand against the worship of 
idols in their home, and we hope that the whole family 
may, by and by, become Christians. 

When there is an open sore in any part of the body, 
the native doctors very often put in medicine having 
caustic properties, which causes much mischief One 
young man came to us recently suffering from disease 
of the cervical glands, a very common complaint here. 
An abscess had formed and burst some months previously; 
and I found the caustic medicine used had burrowed its 
way under the stemo-Tnastoid muscle, setting up 
severe inflammation of the deeper structures. I cut down 
on the part, removed the irritating substance, scraped out 
the diseased glands, and the patient was dismissed 
cured. 

When all remedies fail, the natives too often resort 
to witchcraft, and apply to those who profess to have 
dealings with the unseen agencies which control disease. 
I have at present, as a patient, an official of high rank 
and fair intelligence, who, not more that a month ago, 
consulted a witch-doctor. He received a paper with 
some mystic characters, and, according to directions, he 
burned it, mixed the ashes with water, and drank the 
decoction. This was taken to prevent the return of a 



86 TEN YEARS IN MANCHURIA. 

disease to which he is liable, but for which I am not 
treating him. 

Possession by Evil Spirits. 

The most cruel and barbarous treatment of all is 
carried out in the case of those unfortunate people who 
are believed to be possessed by evil spirits. A poor 
woman was brought to us, whose mind was evidently 
deranged, but who had been pronounced possessed. A 
red-hot poker had been forced into her mouth, and 
thrust down her throat. Others are compelled to 
" wear red shoes," which means to stand bare-footed on 
a red-hot piece of iron. Other treatment is sometimes 
adopted which is too terrible to describe. 

It is difficult for those in Christian countries to 
conceive the vast amount of suffering in this land which 
might be prevented, disease which might be cured, 
sorrow which might be comforted. Not only are doors 
opening to the Gospel on every hand, but out of the 
darkness and misery which surround us, calls come 
for help, spiritual and physical, to which we are unable 
to respond. And in these do we not hear the voice of 
the Master calling us to do the work which He Himself 
began, and which He has committed to our charge? 
Were these things realized, the Christian Church would 



SOME CONDITIONS WHICH INFIUENCE DIS'EASE. 87 

surely rise to her responsibility and put forth her 
strength ; for the harvest in Manchuria is great, while 
the labourers are still but few. 



It will be seen from the tables of statistics (pages 
90-91) that there has been a most encouraging increase 
in our numbers, and that more patients were treated in 
1893 than in any other previous year. In summer 
they often numbered from 120 to 150 on men's days, 
Mondays and Thursdays. On Tuesdays and Fridays 
women are seen, sometimes as many as ninety ; and the 
forenoons of Wednesdays and Saturdays are reserved 
for operations. The fall in 1891 was largely owing to 
the disquieting rumours afloat at the time of the riots at 
Wuhu and other places. It will be noticed, too, that 
our numbers are low in February, as the Chinese new 
year occurs in that month, or at the end of January. 
Everyone is then busy, and there is a superstitious 
prejudice against taking medicine at that season. 



APPENDIX. 





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91 



LIST OF DISEASES— IN-PATIENTS, 1893. 



Entropion 


34 


Hypopion 


4 


Ectropion 


2 


Iritis 


4 


Wound of Eye-lid 


1 


Anterior Synechia 


2 


Blepharospasm 


1 


Cataract 


19 


Symblepharon 


3 


Retinitis '. 


3 


Anchyloblepharon 


1 


Glaucoma 


3 


Trichiasis 


14 


^ Internal Strabismus 


1 


Pterygium 


7 


Disease of Lachrymal Gland 


1 


Conjunotivities — Catarrhal 


3 


Wound of Eye-ball 


1 


do. Purulent 


2 


Stillicidium Tia,chrymarum 


1 


do. Granular 


10 






do. Follicular 


1 


Otorrhcea 


1 


Papilloma of Conjunctiva 


2 


Nasal Polypus 


1 


Keratitis 


5 






Pannus 


3 


Hare-lip 


14 


Ulcer of Cornea 


25 


Elongated Uvula 


1 


Opacity of Cornea 


38 


Dyspepsia 


18 


Wound of do. 


1 


Constipation 


1 


Fibroma of do. 


1 


Lead Colic 


1 


Staphyloma do. 


1 


Dysentery 


1 





APPENDIX. 


93 


Ascaris Lumbricoides 


2 


Epilepsy 


1 


Hepatitis 


1 


Insanity 


1 


Hepatic Abscess ... 


1 






Ascites 


5 


Palpitation 


1 


Internal Hsemorrhoicls . . 


1 


Valvular disease (Mitral) 


3 


External do. 


3 






Fistula in Ano ... 


29 


Bronchitis (Chronic) 


6 


Prolapsus Recti. 


1 


Bronchiectasis 


1 


Atresia Ano 


1 


Abscess of Lung 


1 






Asthma 


1 


Albuminuria 


1 


Haemoptysis 


2 


Phimosis 


8 


Phthisis 


4 


Stricturi ... 


1 


Pleurisy 


1 


Orchitis 


1 


Empyema 


1 


Hydrocele... 


6 


Peripleuritic Abscess . . . 


3 


Enlarged Prostate 


1 






Gleet 


1 


Malaria ... 


2 


Unorrhagia 


1 


Tuberculosis 


10 


Perinephritic Abscess . . 


2 


Syphilis 








Rheumatism (Chronic) ... 


14 


Local Anaesthesia 


1 


Lumbago 




Neuralgia 


4 


Torticollis 




Bell's Paralysis ... 


1 


Mumps 




Hemiplegia 


5 


Opium Smoking 


17 


Progressive Miisc. Atrop 


^y 1 


General Debility 


2 



94 


APPENDIX. 




Tumours 


18 


Eczema 


7 


Cephalliaematoma 


1 


Frost-bite 


t 


Enlarged Cervical Glands 


6 


Bums 


I 


Abscesses 


40 


Woimds 


3 


Whitlows 


2 


do. Gunshot 


8 


Sinuses 


2 


Injuries 


3 


Psoas Abscess 


1 


Sprain 


1 


Abscess of Spine 


3 


Fractures 


4 


Mammary Abscess 


3 


Dislocation 


1 


Pelvic Abscess 


1 


Synovitis 


2 






Spinal Curvature 


I 


Ulcers 


7 


Caries 


4 


Epithelioma 


3 


Necrosis 


7 


Carbuncle 


3 


Disease of Joints... 


9 


Psoriasis 


1 




539 


Scabies 


2 







LIST OF OPERATIONS, 1893. 















I. EYE. 

FOR DISEASES OF — 


1 


6 


1 




T3 

s 


Eyelids — 






^ 


S 




Entropion 


96 


90 


6 






Ectropion 


2 


2 








Trichiasis 


19 


19 








Chalazion ... 


5 


5 








Fibrous Tumour 


1 


1 








Canthoplasty 


2 


2 








Symblepharon ... 


4 


3 


1 






Plastic 


1 




1 






Conjunctiva — 












Pterygium 


14 


14 








Peritomy 


7 


7 








Excision (for Trachoma) 


9 


9 








Papilloma 


2 


2 








Lachrymal Apparatus — 












Excision of Gland 


1 


1 








Bowman's Operation 


3 


3 









96 



APPENDIX. 



EYE. 

FOK DISEASES OF — 

K^omea — 


1 


2 


g 

1 


13 

s 


a 


Paracentesis 


7 


5 


2 






Tattooing 


10 


10 








Fibroma 


1 


1 








Removal of foreign body 


1 


1 








Iris — 












Iridotomy 


2 


2 








Iridectomy 


38 


38 








Freeing Pupil 


1 




1 






Lens — 












Cataract — Hard 


15 


13 


1 


1 




Do. Soft 


3 


3 








Do. Traumatic 


1 


1 








Needling for Opaque Capsule 


4 


3 


1 






Ih/ebcdl— 












Excision (Staphyloma) 


1 


1 








Internal Strabismus 


1 


1 








II. AMPUTATIONS. 












■Upper Extremity — 












Arm 


1 


1 








Forearm 


1 


1 








Fingers 


5 


5 









APPENDIX, 



97 



AMPUTATIONS. 

FOR DISEASES OF — 

Lower Extremity — 


3 


s 
Q 


I 


1 

a 


s 


Leg 


1 


1 








Ankle Joint (Syme's) 


2 


2 








Foot 


1 


1 








Toes 


8 


8 








III. OPERATIONS 












ON BONES AND JOINTS. 












GOUGING, SEQUESTEOTOMY, OK 












KESBOTION, FOR CARIES OR 












NECROSIS OF — 












Femur ... 


1 




1 






Tibia 


5 


4 


1 






Metatarsus 


1 


1 








Clavicle 


1 


1 








Jaw 


2 


2 








Metacarpus 


1 


1 








Phalanges 


3 


3 








Drainage of— 












Knee Joint 


1 




1 






Hip do 


2 


1 




1 




IV. FRACTURES. 












Leg 


1 


1 








Forearm 


2 


2 









«» APPENDIX 










FRACTURES. 


1 


1 
s 
o 


1 
1 


T3 

s 




Finger 


1 


1 








Clavicle 


2 


2 








V. DISLOCATIONS. 












Shoulder 


1 


1 




' 




Ankle 


1 


1 








Jaw 


1 


1 








VI. TUMOURS (Excised). 












Fatty 


4 


4 








Fibrous 


6 


6 








Cartilaginous 


2 


2 








Osteoma 


1 


1 








Papillomata 


2 


2 








Scirrhus (Breast) 


1 


1 








Cystic do. 


1 


1 








Epithelioma (Penis) 


2 


2 








Do. (Lip) 


2 


2 








Sebaceous Cysts 


7 


7 








Nasal Polypus (Fibrous) 


1 


1 








Do. do. (Mucous) 


9 


8 


1 






Aural do 


1 


1 








Oanglion 


i 


4 









APPENDIX. 



99 



TUMOURS (Excised). 

Enlarged Cervical Glands 
Unclassified 

VII. GENERAL. 



Perinephritic Abscess 

Peripleuritic do. 

Pelvic do. 

Psoas do. 

Ulcers (Volckmannized) 

Whitlows 

Sinuses ... 

Carbuncle (Incisions) ... 

Tenotomy 

Skin Grafting ... 

Removal of Dead Tissue 

Extraction of Needles 
Do. Bullet 

Do. Teeth 

Sewing Severe Wound 
Alimentary System — 

Harelip ... 

Excision of Uvula 



15 

2 



O 



•214 


209 


2 


2 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 


4 


12 


12 


24 


24 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


o 


2 


2 


1 


1 


233 


233 



15 
2 



o o 



1 00 APPENDIX. 








GElSfERAL. 


3 


t3 


t3 

s 


o o 


s 








HH 




Fistula in Ano 


46 


40 


6 






Internal Hsemorrhoids 


1 


1 








External do. 


3 


3 








Sinus of Rectum 


1 


1 








Reducing prolapsed Rectum 


2 


2 








Atresia Ani 


1 


1 








Urinary System — 












Circumcision (Phimosis) 


8 


8 








Urethrotomy 


1 




1 






Dilating Stricture 


5 


3 


2 






Tapping, &c. — 












Ascitis 


4 


2 


1 


1 




Hydrocele 


4 


2 


2 






Do. (Radical Cure) .. 


6 


6 








Cephalhsematoma 


1 


1 








Total 


954 


914 


36 


3 


1 



N.B. — The above lists of Diseases and Operations cover a period of 
about sixteen months.